Q1. What is network address?
Reply: We can view community and host addresses in two techniques:
one) Community-ID and Host-ID
An IP handle is created of two components, the left element is community ID, the correct part is host ID.
For illustration, in one hundred.3.four.five, if 100 is a community ID, then three.four.5 is a host ID. If one hundred.3 is community ID, then 4.5 is a host ID.
2) Network-handle and host-handle. Let us search at two illustrations:
IP-handle Community-ID Host-ID Community-address Host-tackle Mask
100.4.5.six/8 100 4.five.6 one hundred… one hundred.four.five.6 /8
a hundred and fifty.1.2.3/sixteen one hundred fifty.1 2.three a hundred and fifty.1.. one hundred fifty.one.2.3 /sixteen
Notice: Community mask is offered as /m exactly where m is a 2-digit decimal number in between 8~31.
Be aware: IP, community, and host addresses are usually offered with masks.
Q2. What is mask?
Response. IP makes use of network mask to break up a 32-little bit IP-address into network-ID and host-ID. Network-deal with is made of community-ID bits on the still left and bits on the right.
For instance, for a hundred and fifty.one.two.3/16, sixteen is the network mask, one hundred fifty.1 is network-ID, one hundred fifty.1../16 is network-address, two.three is host-ID, 150.1.2.three/sixteen is host-address. Community-handle is used by routers to forward packets. Host tackle is employed to distinguish hosts in the exact same network.
Q3. Why community addresses?
Response: When figures are also many, we use hierarchical composition to control them. For case in point, telephone quantity are structured as.
For example, 086.021.1234.5678 is a number in China, Shanghais. The voice message is switched by nation code, town code, and prefix. Structured phone figures are a lot simpler to change than flat 10-digit phone numbers.
Web faces a comparable circumstance. There are virtually 4.2 billion addresses (IP has 32 bits. or two^32 person addresses.) Routers use routing tables to foreword packets. Clearly, it truly is a lot less complicated for router to take care of structured addresses than four billion flat types.
IP’s resolution is to use community-addresses to ahead packets, not specific kinds. Community mask breaks an address into a community-ID and a host-ID. Lease IPv4 use network addresses, not IP addresses.
– one hundred…/8 network has sixteen,777,216 addresses. In a routing table, (100…/eight, up coming hop interface) states: forward packets with the same vacation spot community to the very same up coming hop interface.
– a hundred and fifty.1../16 network has sixty five,536 addresses. In a routing desk, (one hundred fifty.one../16, subsequent hop interface) will take treatment of forwarding sixty five,536 person addresses in a hundred and fifty.1../sixteen community.
– 150.one../16 community has sixty five,536 IP addresses. In a routing table, (150.one../sixteen, following hop interface) normally takes treatment of forwarding 65,536 personal tackle in 150.one../sixteen community.
– 222.111.forty four./24 has 256 IP addresses. In a routing desk, (222.111.44./24, next hop interface) forwards 256 IP addresses in 222.111.forty four. network to the subsequent hop interface.
Q4. How existing mask in decimal?
Reply. Present mask the exact same way as IP deal with. For illustration.
/8 is introduced as 255….
/16 is presented as 255.255…
/24 is offered as 255.255.255.
Q5. Why mask size is a number of of eight but?
Answer: There are two type of IP addressing schemes: classful and classless. What we have talked so far is classful. Classless IP tackle can use mask of any duration. See subsequent tutorials for information.
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